|Jarosław Wysocki, Krzysztof Krasucki, Łukasz Żywczyk|
Most of the underlying causes of the disorders of the organ of hearing and balance are of vascular or inflammatory character, however, a small proportion of cases, their nature is distinctly morphological. Based on literature review, the authors describe several anatomical anomalies and developmental defects leading to tinnitus, hearing impairment or vertigo, such as: atlas and occipital bone anomalies, displaced internal carotid artery, persistent stapedial and/or trigeminal artery, high jugular bulb,angiomegaly of some emissaries of the skull.
keywords: wady rozwojowe, zaburzenia słuchu, zaburzenia równowagi, przegląd,congenital defects, hearing disturbances, balance disturbances, review
pages: from 177 to 182
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