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  Patronage of the Polish Society of Audiology and Phoniatrics

vol 13. no 1. March 2014  

 Review articles
Application of magnetic resonance in neurootology
Grażyna Tacikowska

The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has
allowed, due to its very high spatial resolution, not only to determine
the cortical and subcortical representation of the vestibular
system, but also its connections and interactions with other
sensory systems. The author presents, based on the analysis of
world literature, current knowledge about the organization of
the central structures involved in the perception of balance, the
correlation of perceptual and motor tasks in healthy subjects
and the changes caused by damage of the peripheral and central
vestibular system.
Previous studies have estimated the following facts: a) in patients
with acute unilateral vestibular lesion vestibular cortex shows
spontaneous visual-vestibular activation-deactivation model
similar to that in healthy subjects during unilateral vestibular
stimulation. In the acute stage of the disease, the activity in the
multisensory vestibular cortical and subcortical areas increases,
but simultaneously it significantly decreases in the visual
and somatosensory cortex areas; b) in patients with bilateral
vestibular failure the activation-deactivation pattern shows a
decrease both of activations and deactivations; c) patients with
defective vestibular nuclei (in Wallenberg’s syndrome) fMRI
shows no activation or significantly reduced activation in the
contralateral hemisphere during caloric irrigation of the ear
ipsilateral to the defective side, but the activation pattern in the
ipsilateral hemisphere appears “normal”; d) in patients with a
clinical downbeat nystagmus syndrome the activity is reduced
in the region of the cerebellar tonsil and flocculus/paraflocculus

keywords: czynnościowy rezonans magnetyczny, układ przedsionkowy, choroby układu przedsionkowego,functional magnetic resonance, vestibular system, vestibular disorders

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